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East Kazakhstan delegation went to the library named after Lobachevsky Kazan Federal University to get the original book of Abay

The delegation of East Kazakhstan region, composed of the chairman of the court of East Kazakhstan region N.M. Kayyrbekova, judges of the regional court E.Sh. Zhumaksanov and rector of  S. Amanzholov EKSU M.A. Tolegen, went to Tatarstan (RF) for the original of Abay's book “The Code of Rules”.

The opportunity to exhibit the book for temporary use during the conference in East Kazakhstan region dedicated to the 175th anniversary of Abay was received from the Plenipotentiary Representation of the Republic of Tatarstan in Kazakhstan.

The first steppe legal publication - “The Code of Rules”, or “Code for Simple Kazakhs”, the 1885 edition, was discovered by scientists from the Abay state reserve-museum “Zhidebay-Borili” during a scientific trip to Kazan (the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia) in the library named after Lobachevsky Kazan Federal University.

Employees of the library named after Lobachevsky allowed only to remove a copy from the document.

Recall the background: at the extraordinary congress of biys of Pavlodar, Karkaraly, Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk districts of the Semipalatinsk region in 1885, taking place 70 kilometers from Semipalatinsk, not far from the city of Charska (today it is Shar), the Code for Simple Kazakhs was adopted.

A completely new set of rules and regulations was presented at the congress, according to which the Kazakh population was to live for almost half a century, and Abay Kunanbaev, who was elected chief judge tobe bi, became the author of the legal document.

An analysis of the historical and political situation of the second half of the 19th century shows that the legislation of the Russian Empire on many issues did not coincide with the customs and traditions of the Kazakh people. For example, the old custom of stealing a bride according to Russian law was regarded as a serious criminal offense, etc. In order to resolve some of the legal issues among the indigenous population of Kazakhstan, a good friend of Fedor Dostoevsky and Abay Kunanbaev Vasily Tseklinsky instructed Abai to draw up a special legal code.

Abay completed the task in just three days. The bill (“Karamola Rules” or “Karamola Yerezhe”) consisted of 74 articles of civil, criminal and administrative law. The new judge summarized the laws of the empire and the laws of the steppe.

For example, Abay offered to fine cattle with barymtachs, if the offender stole someone else's cattle, he not only had to return the stolen goods, but also give part of his property to the victim.

Abay was the first in Kazakh law to introduce the concept of punishment (in the form of a fine) for contempt of court, introduced the concepts of taking the oath, giving false testimony in court, challenging a judge if he was a relative or interested person in the case, challenging a witness, etc. Two weeks were allotted to appeal against the decisions taken.

The code of laws, compiled in the XIX century by Abai, written in Arabic graphics, is stored today in the library to them. Lobachevsky Kazan Federal University in Tatarstan.

The original document, printed in Arabic graphics in the printing house of Kazan Imperial University in 1886 by order of the military governor of Semipalatinsk, is stored today in the library named after Lobachevsky of Kazan Federal University. But it is not in any archive and library of Kazakhstan. The collections of the Abay Museum had only a typewritten copy in Cyrillic made in 1959 by an employee of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR.

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